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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 222 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 何明修,2005。《社會運動概論》。臺北:三民。
  2. 鄭永年,2010。《中國模式:經驗與困局》。杭州:浙江人民出版社。
  3. 本尼迪克特•安德森(Benedict Anderson)著,吳叡人 譯,2005. 《想像的共同體:民族主義的起源與散佈》(Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism)。上海:上海人民出版社。
  4. 喬舒亞•科藍茲克(Joshua Kurlantzick)著,湯錦台譯,2015。《民主在退潮:民主還會讓我們的世界變得更好嗎?》(Democracy in Retreat: The Revolt of the Middle Class and the Worldwide Decline of Representative Government)。台北:如果出版。
  5. 曼紐爾•卡斯特( Manuel Castells)著,夏鑄九等譯,2006。《網路社會的崛起》(The Rise of the Network Society)。北京:社會科學文獻出版社。
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