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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 73 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 白佩宜、許瑛玿(2011)。探討不同探究式教學法對高一生科學探究能力與學習環境觀感之影響。課程與教學季刊,14(3),123-156。
  2. 林美馨、楊芳瑩(2011)。由認識觀發展的角度探討國小學童對科學探究過程之看法。科學教育學刊,19(6),531-548。
  3. 封中興(2012)。建模導向的探究模式對八年級學生辨識科學探究成份能力之影響。中等教育,63(1),38-60。
  4. 洪振方(2010)。思考導向的探究式學習對國二學生科學探究能力的影響。科學教育學刊,18(5),389-415。
  5. 陳均伊(2010)。教師專業成長之個案研究:一位國中自然教師探究教學觀 點的轉變。教育科學研究期刊,55(2),233-264。
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