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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 57 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 台灣GEM研究團隊,2013/12。〈2013全球創業觀察(GEM)台灣研究成果交流論壇〉,《創業管理研究》,第8卷第4期,頁83-99。
  2. 朱沛,2007/9。〈創業現象的分類與特殊類型創業理論的發展〉,《創業管理研究》,第2卷第3期,頁21-50。
  3. 李威龍,2013/3。〈家庭環境對創業意向與創業行為之影響:以兩岸創業家為例〉,《多國籍企業管理評論》,第7卷第1期,頁71-94。
  4. 連勇智、方至民、鍾招正,2009/8。〈創業研究與家族企業:回顧與展望〉,《組織與管理》,第2卷第2期,頁51-76。
  5. 曾裕仁、李昭華,2012/3。〈創業教育相關課程中探討業主之創業精神—以斗六地區為例〉,《環球科技人文學刊》,第14期,頁47-56。
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