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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 75 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 15. 高子荃、陳振遠和周建新,2004,「台灣地區產險業經營效率之研究—資料包絡法與Malmquist生產力指數之應用」,輔仁管理評論,第十一卷,第一期,第53-76頁。
  2. 18. 孫遜,2004,資料包絡分析法-理論與應用,揚智文化事業股份有限公司,台北。
  3. 36. 賴士葆,1990,「科技策略與新產品發展績效相關之研究」,科技管理論文集,大業文教基金會,台北。
  4. 40. 蘇進祿,2004,「以資料包絡分析法評估鋼鐵產業經營績效之研究」,國立成功大學,高階管理碩士在職專班碩士論文。
  5. 1. Ali, A., 1994, “Pioneering Versus Incremental Innovation: Review and Research Propositions”, Journal of Product Innovation Management, vol. 11, pp.146-161.
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 洪雲霖(2010)。新產品導入量產敏捷度之關鍵因素分析。虎尾科技大學工業工程與管理研究所學位論文。2010。1-80。
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