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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 56 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. [2] 李仁豪和余民寧,”二層次結構方程式模型的應用:以教育心理學為例”,師大學報:教育類,第53期,P.95-123,2008。
  2. [11] 葉美玲、高美玲,「結構方程式與線性結構關係之簡介」,護理研究,七卷五期,1999。
  3. [12] 董鈺琪,「以結構方程模式驗證綜合醫院平衡計分卡績效指標間因果關係的研究-以某公立醫院為例」,台灣大學醫療機構管理研究所碩士論文,2004。
  4. [15] 蔡耿全,「設計策略地圖整合的平衡計分卡:以台灣花卉產業為例」,交通大學工業工程管理研究所碩士論文,2009。
  5. [20] Bentler, P.M., Theory and Implementation of EQS: A Structural Equations Program, BMDP Statistical Software, 1985.
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王樂知(2016)。探討企業經營模式轉型之即創歷程—以台灣大車隊為例。臺灣大學國際企業學研究所學位論文。2016。1-111。 
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