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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 23 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. [2]Ravi S. Sandhu , Edward J. Coyne , Hal L. Feinstein , Charles E. Youman, “Role-Based Access Control Models”, Computer, v.29, n.2, p.38-37, February 1996
  2. [3]R. S. Sandhu, E. J. Coyne and C. E. Youman, “Role-Based Access Control Models”, IEEE Computer , pp. 38-47, 1996.
  3. [9]廖瑞民,「完全獨立之硬碟資料瞬間復原架構」,靜宜大學資訊管理學系研究所碩士論文,2002
  4. [22]GNU General Public License,取自 ,2010年12月15日
  5. [23]國家高速網路中心,取自 ,2010年12月15日
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 劉遠露(2016)。中臺灣適合國會遷建地點之研究。逢甲大學土地管理學系學位論文。2016。1-118。 
  2. 賴正裕(2009)。北北基三縣市合併案之研究。臺灣師範大學政治學研究所在職進修碩士班學位論文。2009。1-277。
  3. 王嘉田(2016)。以虛擬磁碟實現電腦桌面環境分層管理及快速部署之方法與實作。中正大學雲端計算與物聯網數位學習碩士在職專班學位論文。2016。1-52。
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