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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 57 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 4. Van Riel, C. B. M.、Van den Ban , A.(2001),The added value of corporate logos - an empirical study,European Journal of Marketing
    2. 6. Nicholas, S.(1988),The economics of trademarks,Trademark Reporter ,78,523-539。
    3. 8. Richardson, G.(2008),Brand names before the industrial revolution(),Cambridge:The National Bureau of Economic Research。
    4. 9. Ramello, G. B.(2006),What's in a sign? Trademark law and economic theory ,Journal of Econamic Surveys,20(4),547-565。
    5. 15. Howard, P. M.、Lixin, Y.(2008),Trademark sales, entry, and the value of reputation,International Economic Review,49(2),547-576。
    Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
    1. 賴韻茹(2012)。應用專利與商標分析智慧財產權之 經營模式-以P&G為例。臺北科技大學服務與科技管理研究所學位論文。2012。1-134。 
    2. 陳巧玲(2017)。節慶活動體驗媒介、體驗行銷對遊客行為意圖之影響─以山美寶島鯝魚節為例。朝陽科技大學休閒事業管理系學位論文。2017。1-108。
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