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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 25 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1.Cundall, P. A., “Formulation of Three-dimensional Distinct Element Model—PartⅠ. A Scheme to Detect and Represent Contacts in a System Composed of Many Polyhedral Blocks,” Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. Abstr., Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 107-116 (1988).
  2. 2.Cundall, P.A., “Formulation of a Three-dimensional Distinct Element Model—Part Ⅱ. Mechanical Calculations for Motion and Interaction of a System Composed of Many Polyhedral Blocks.” Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. Abstr., Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 117-125 (1988).
  3. 3.Cundall, P.A., and O.D.L. Strack, “A Discrete Numerical Model for Granular Assemblies,” Geotechnique, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 47-65 (1979).
  4. 5.Oldenburg, M. and L. Nilsson, “The Position Code Algorithm for Contact Searching,” Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng., Vol. 37, pp. 359-368 (1994).
  5. 6.Shi, G.H.,“Discontinuous Deformation Analysis, A new Numerical Model for the Static and Dynamics of Block systems,”Ph. D. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of California at Berkeley (1988).
Times Cited (5) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳偉嘉(2009)。圓球正向接觸臨界速度之參數研究。中原大學土木工程研究所學位論文。2009。1-107。 
  2. 吳柏翰(2008)。三維圓球顆粒運動之數值模擬。中原大學土木工程研究所學位論文。2008。1-209。 
  3. 張君豪(2006)。多面塊體數值模擬-塊體的切割。中央大學土木工程學系學位論文。2006。1-93。
  4. 林昇鴻(2006)。卵形顆粒介質運動之數值模擬。中央大學土木工程學系學位論文。2006。1-108。
  5. 陳曉敏(2014)。卵形顆粒法向與切向接觸之等效線性彈簧值之推導與驗證。中央大學土木工程學系學位論文。2014。1-113。
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