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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 41 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. [1] Gregory Hallock Smith,〝Practical Computer-Aided Lens Design〞,
  2. [2] Virendra N. Mahajan,〝Optical Imaging and Aberrations ( part1 ray
  3. [7]Robert E. Stephens,〝The Design of Triplet Anastigmat Lens of Lens
  4. [10]W. J. Smith,〝Modern Optical Engineering 3rd ed〞, New York,
  5. [14] U.S. 2,720,816 10/1955 Irving C. Sandback
Times Cited (7) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳慶成(2007)。倒車影像超廣角鏡頭最佳化設計之分析與探討。虎尾科技大學光電與材料科技研究所學位論文。2007。1-81。
  2. 安邦鼎(2007)。模造玻璃透鏡應用於三百萬畫素手機鏡頭設計。虎尾科技大學光電與材料科技研究所學位論文。2007。1-69。
  3. 林忠毅(2008)。離軸式光學變焦設計。中央大學光電科學研究所學位論文。2008。1-86。
  4. 王建國(2009)。光學輔助光學設計。亞洲大學電腦與通訊學系碩士班學位論文。2009。1-68。
  5. 龍怡璇(2014)。一種應用於大面積二維投影檢測系統的光源模組設計與驗證。中央大學光機電工程研究所學位論文。2014。1-82。
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