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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 51 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. [4] 王晶譯(民90),老年潮,聯經出版公司,台北。譯自: Peter G. Peterson, 2001, “ Gray dawn : how the coming age wave will transform America and the world ”,頁38-45。
  2. [13] 林全譯(民77) ,財政赤字 多龐大?多長久?多危險?,群智出版社,台北。譯自:Lester Thurow C, 1938, “The deficits : how big? how long? how dangerous? ” ,頁41-45。
  3. [15] 徐仁輝著(民88),當前我國預算決策過程之研究,銓敘部出版,台北,頁411-430。
  4. [24] 陳志強(民92),台灣經濟研究月刊。
  5. [25] 陳志強(民93),剖析韓國因應未來人口老化現象之對策,台灣經濟研究月刊。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 鄭雅允(2007)。政治景氣循環對臺灣地方福利財政之衝擊。政治大學行政管理碩士學程學位論文。2007。1-88。
  2. 黃懷恩(2008)。泌尿專科醫療市場之研究-以揚昇泌尿健康中心為例。中央大學管理學院高階主管企管碩士班學位論文。2008。1-108。
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