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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 71 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Akkuş, H., Atasoy, B. & Geban, Ö.(2003). Effectiveness of Instruction Based on the Constructivist Approach on Understanding Chemical Equilibrium Concepts. Research in Science and Technological Education, 21, 209-227.
  2. Barab, S. A., Barnett, M., & Squire, K. (2002). Preparing pre-service teachers: Developing an empirical account of a community of practice. The Journal of the Learning Sciences 11(4), 489-542.
  3. Blosser, P. E. (1987). Science misconceptions research and some implications for the teaching of science to elementary school students.( ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED282776)
  4. Brown, J.S., Collins, A. & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18(1), 32-42.
  5. Campos, M. (2003).A constructivist method for the analysis of networked cognitive communication, and the assessment of collaborative learning and knowledge-building. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 8(2).
Times Cited (6) 〈TOP〉
  1. 黃冠男(2008)。以概念圖探討網路群組學習的知識建構過程。淡江大學資訊管理學系碩士班學位論文。2008。1-81。 
  2. 張秀美(2007)。情意鷹架者的實踐知識-以 LAIN 網路學習社群為例。中央大學學習與教學研究所學位論文。2007。1-117。
  3. 賴春妍(2008)。從學習者成為鷹架者──社群觀點探看身分轉變的學習。中央大學學習與教學研究所學位論文。2008。1-131。
  4. 廖筱毓(2012)。線上科學對話與知識建構對大學生語言學習的影響。政治大學華語文教學碩士學位學程學位論文。2012。1-80。
  5. 張秀美(2014)。線上小組推進探究的關鍵時刻。中央大學學習與教學研究所學位論文。2014。1-237。
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