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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 44 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 16. 劉正田(2003),「企業研發投資與淨值市價比現象」,風險管理學報,第五卷,第二期,2003年7月,pp261-285.
  2. 1. Banz, R., W.(1981), “The relationship between return and market value of common stock,”Journal of Finance Economics, March 1981, pp3-18.
  3. 2. Basu, S.(1977), “Investment Performance of common stock in relation to their price-earnings ratio: a test of the efficient market hypothesis,” Journal of Financial 32, pp663-682.
  4. 3. Basu, S.(1983), “The relation between earnings, yield, market value and return for NYSE common stocks: further evidence,” Journal of Financial Economics 12, pp129-156.
  5. 4. Bhandari, L. C.(1988), “Debt/equity ratio and expected common stock returns: empirical evidence,” Journal of Finance 60, June 1988, pp507- 528.
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 劉震華(2009)。利用MSN機器人建構之主動型知識分享平台-以股市投資為例。臺中科技大學資訊科技與應用研究所學位論文。2009。1-78。
  2. 魏武興(2011)。市場風險與個別國家風險對台灣股市的影響(按產業分)。政治大學經濟研究所學位論文。2011。1-73。
  3. 楊沛棋(2015)。研發支出、依時變動風險溢酬與股價報酬-非線性四因子模型之應用。中原大學國際經營與貿易研究所學位論文。2015。1-64。
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