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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 44 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1. Bard, J. F., 1990, “A branch and bound algorithm for the bilevel programming problem,” SIAM Journal of Scientific and Statistical Computing, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp.281-292.
  2. 3. Ben-Ayed, O., 1993, “Bilevel linear programming,” Computers and Operation Research, Vol. 20, pp.485-501.
  3. 5. Bräysy, O. and Gendreau, M., 2002, “Tabu search heuristics for the vehicle routing problem with time windows,” TOP, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp.211-237.
  4. 6. Bräysy, O. and Gendreau, M., 2005a, “Vehicle routing problem with time windows, part I: route construction and local search algorithms,” Transportation Science, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp.104-118.
  5. 7. Bräysy, O. and Gendreau, M., 2005b, “Vehicle routing problem with time windows, part II: metaheuristics,” Transportation Science, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 119-139.
Times Cited (9) 〈TOP〉
  1. 駱巧瑜(2014)。應用兩階層規劃求解多模式資源受限的多專案排程問題。淡江大學資訊管理學系碩士班學位論文。2014。1-56。 
  2. 張雅翔(2012)。應用兩階層規劃模型於差別補貼費率訂定之研究-以台灣廢印表機資源回收系統為例。淡江大學管理科學學系碩士班學位論文。2012。1-109。 
  3. 陳柏宇(2011)。台灣廢印表機回收費率制定問題之探討 ─ 兩階層規劃之KKT條件與直覺模糊趨近法之比較。淡江大學管理科學研究所碩士班學位論文。2011。1-90。 
  4. 韓永祥(2008)。整合遺傳演算法與粒子群最佳化演算法於二階線性規劃問題之應用-以供應鏈之配銷模型為例。臺北科技大學工業工程與管理系碩士班學位論文。2008。1-81。 
  5. 李德全(2009)。隨機作業時間之道路災害緊急搶修排程模式與演算法探討。中原大學土木工程研究所學位論文。2009。1-92。 
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