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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 35 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. [1] A. Zukauskas, Introduction to Solid-State Lighting, John Wiley & Sons, New York (2002).
  2. [2] E. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes, Cambridge University Press, UK (2003).
  3. [3] J. F. Van Derlofske, M. McColgan, “White LED sources for vehicle forward lighting,” Rensselaser Polytechnic Institute, New York (2002).
  4. [10] R. W. Boyd, Radiometry and the Detection of Optical Radiation,
  5. John Wiley & Sons, New York (1984).
Times Cited (12) 〈TOP〉
  1. 李佳容(2010)。高功率發光二極體應用於機車車頭燈具之設計與分析。清華大學動力機械工程學系學位論文。2010。1-71。 
  2. 黃仲緯(2008)。從LED車頭燈的發展探討台灣車燈廠商未來的發展策略。清華大學工業工程與工程管理學系學位論文。2008。1-66。 
  3. 胡志銘(2008)。特殊封裝之白光LED應用於汽車近光燈之研究。中央大學光電科學研究所學位論文。2008。1-73。
  4. 陳文彬(2009)。新型高功率LED車前燈研製及模擬分析。中原大學機械工程研究所學位論文。2009。1-105。
  5. 馮世典(2011)。德規LED自行車前燈光學設計與驗證。中央大學光電科學研究所學位論文。2011。1-106。
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