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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 94 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Abu-Bader S. and Abu-Qarn A. S. (2003), “Government Expenditures, Military Spending and Economic Growth: Causality Evidence From Egypt, Israel, and Syria” Journal of Policy Modeling. 25. PP. 567~583.
  2. Adam, G.. and D. Gold, (1987), “The Economics of Military Spending. Is the Military Dollar Rally Different?” In: C. Schmidt and F. Blackaby, eds., Peace, Defense and Economic Analysis (Macmillan Press, London).
  3. Ahmed, A. A. Asseery (1996), “Evidence Form Time Series on Militarizing the Economy: The Case Iraq.” Applied Economics, 28, PP. 1257~1261.
  4. Alexander, W. R. J. (1990), The Impact of Defense Spending on Economic Growth: A Multi-sectoral Approach to Defense Spending and Economic Growth with Evidence From Developed Countries, Defence Economics 2, PP. 39~55.
  5. Ball, N. (1983), “Defense and Development: a Critique of the Benoit Study,” Economic Development and Cultural Change, vol.31, No.3, PP. 507~524.
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 丁英豪(2008)。經濟成長率與國防支出之跨國比較。淡江大學國際貿易學系國際企業學碩士在職專班學位論文。2008。1-50。 
  2. 林鈺雯(2008)。小型開放經濟之貨幣政策法則—台灣的實證分析。臺北大學經濟學系學位論文。2008。1-71。
  3. 楊浩忠(2011)。解析重大經濟數據對國防支出之影響-以台灣及南韓為例。朝陽科技大學財務金融系學位論文。2011。1-76。
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