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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 48 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1998,『台灣公民營銀行經營效率之比較---資料包絡分析法之應用』, 東吳經濟學報--東吳大學經濟所碩士,中經院研究員。
  2. Avkiran, N.K.(1999),“The Evidence on Efficiency Gains: The Role of Mergers
  3. Aigner, D., C. A. Lovell, and P. Schmidt (1977), “Formulation and Estimation of
  4. Stochastic Frontier Production Frontier Models,” Journal of Econometrics, 6, 21-37.
  5. Akhavein, J. D., A. N. Berger, and D. B. Humphrey, (1997) “The Effects of Megamergers on Efficiency and Price :Evidence from a Bank Profit Function,” Review of Industrial Organization, 12, 95-139.
Times Cited (14) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳正祥(2014)。工具機產業製造服務化能力模式之研究。長榮大學高階管理碩士在職專班(EMBA)學位論文。2014。1-135。 
  2. 張凱渟(2007)。台灣地區有線電視系統業者經營效率分析—三階段法之應用。政治大學經濟研究所學位論文。2007。1-94。
  3. 黃煌朝(2007)。產出品質、環境特性與地方法院審理效率。政治大學行政管理碩士學程學位論文。2007。1-69。
  4. 薛月對(2008)。台灣會計師事務所效率之探討-三階段資料包絡分析法之應用。政治大學行政管理碩士學程學位論文。2008。1-76。
  5. 黃文旺(2008)。台灣半導體產業經營效率分析-三階段資料包絡分析法之應用。中央大學產業經濟研究所碩士在職專班學位論文。2008。1-135。
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