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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 27 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. [4] International Organization for Standardization , ISO 17020 General criteria for the operation of various types of bodies performing inspection, 1998.
  2. [15] EN 1176-1 (1998), ”Playground Equipment: General Safety Requirements and Test Methods”, British Standards Institution, UK.
  3. [19] 經濟部標準檢驗局委託,財團法人全國認證基金會執行,2005年,「國內檢驗機構調查分析報告」。
  4. [24] 「公用兒童遊戲場設備安全性能準則(草案)說明及座談會」,內政部兒童局暨財團法人全國認證基金會,民國95年7月。
  5. [1] 全國認證基金會,「ISO/IEC 17020:1998不同類型的執行檢驗機構運作之一般準則暨IAF/ILAC A4:2004 ISO/IEC 17020應用指引」,TAF-CNLA-RI01(3),新竹。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 洪清淵(2012)。鄰里公園兒童遊戲設施選用與安全檢驗方法之研究—以桃園縣八德市為例。中央大學土木工程學系碩士在職專班學位論文。2012。1-177。
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