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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 60 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王中敬、謝德生、陳淳、丘祖毅、許德金(1991): 輸尿管結石的輸尿管鏡處理,中華民國泌尿科醫學會雜誌,第2卷3期,536-541。
  2. 張皓鈞(2005): 台灣人口結構變遷對未來財政之衝擊 ,國立中央大學/管理學院高階主管企管碩士班碩士論文。
  3. 許美媛(2002): 全民健保實施與醫院效率關聯性之研究-資料包絡法,靜宜大學會計學系碩士班碩士論文。
  4. 陳惠貞、王香蘋(2005):台灣老人健康初探:1989年至1999年,台灣家醫誌,第15卷1期,25-35。
  5. 楊緒棣(2006) : 醫療行銷:以新店慈濟醫院為例,國立臺灣大學商學研究所碩士論文。
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