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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 27 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Bergstrand, J.H. (1985), The Gravity Equation in International Trade: Some Microeconomic Foundations and Empirical Evidence, Review of Economics and Statistics, 67, 474-481.
  2. Bergstrand, J.H. (1989), The Generalized Gravity Equation, Monopolistic Competition and the Factor-proportions Theory in International Trade, Review of Economics and Statistic, 71, 143-153.
  3. Cho, V. (2003), A Comparison of Three Different Approach to Tourist Arrival Forecasting, Tourism Management, 24(3), 323-330.
  4. Coshall, J. (2000), Spectral Analysis of International Tourism Flows, Annals of Tourism Research, 27(3), 577-589.
  5. Crouch, G.I. (1994), The Study of International Tourism Demand: A Survey of Practice, Journal of Travel Research, 32(4), 41-55.
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 徐嘉伶(2008)。中國大陸各地區吸引國際觀光客旅遊之決定因素。政治大學國家發展研究所學位論文。2008。1-66。
  2. 謝詠傑(2014)。中國消費者信心指數變化對航空業與飯店業股票報酬的影響。中正大學財務金融學系學位論文。2014。1-59。
  3. 林思玲(2016)。臺灣文化資產旅遊影響因素及其消費支出之研究。臺灣大學經濟學研究所學位論文。2016。1-113。
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