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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 205 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 丁彥伶,2003,《台灣地區醫學中心網站品質評估之研究》,銘傳大學傳播管理研究所碩士論文。
  2. 于富雲,2002,〈教育網站的設計〉,《教育資料與圖書館學》,第40卷,第2期,頁186-197。
  3. 方德信,2004,《國民中小學教師透過網路在職進修動機與學習成效》,國立台北師範學院國民教育研究所碩士論文。
  4. 王天津、劉素苓,2004,〈應用模糊多準則決策於入口網站服務績效之研究〉,《電子商務研究》,2004年秋季,第二卷,第三期,頁235-258。
  5. 王姿晴,2007,《文化創意產業網站品質評估之研究》,國立中央大學客家政治經濟研究所碩士論文。
Times Cited (4) 〈TOP〉
  1. 賴嘉娥(2012)。客語能力認證考試者之學習動機與學習成效評估:以六堆地區為例。屏東科技大學客家文化產業研究所學位論文。2012。1-105。 
  2. 劉國裕(2008)。客家文化體驗課程之研究。屏東科技大學客家文化產業研究所學位論文。2008。1-151。 
  3. 徐慧芹(2009)。數位華語教學廠商營運模式—以NTUtorMing為例。臺灣大學國際企業學研究所學位論文。2009。1-100。 
  4. 陳品全(2009)。政策規劃與決策模式之研究-以客語能力認證為例。中興大學國家政策與公共事務研究所學位論文。2009。1-160。
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