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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 53 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. ( 1 ) Agras, Jean and Duane Chapman (1999), "A Dynamic Approach to the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis," Ecological Economics, 28 (2), 267-77.
  2. ( 2 ) Ang, B. W. (1999), "Is the Energy Intensity a Less Useful Indicator than the Carbon Factor in the Study of Climate Change?" Energy Policy, 27 943-6.
  3. ( 6 ) Cole, Matthew A. (2003), "Development, Trade, and the Environment: How Robust is the Environmental Kuznets Curve?" Environment and Development Economics, 8 (Sep/17), 557-80.
  4. ( 7 ) Coondoo, Dipankor and Soumyananda Dinda (2002), "Causality between Income and Emission: A Country Group-Specific Econometric Analysis," Ecological Economics, 40 (3), 351-67.
  5. ( 8 ) de Bruyn, S. M., J. C. J. M. van den Bergh, and J. B. Opschoor (1998), "Economic Growth and Emissions: Reconsidering the Empirical Basis of Environmental Kuznets Curves," Ecological Economics, 25 (5), 161-75.
Times Cited (4) 〈TOP〉
  1. 鍾欣妤(2012)。台灣地區鋼鐵業能源消費與CO2排放及相關污染物之關聯分析。成功大學環境工程學系學位論文。2012。1-108。 
  2. 謝國風(2009)。能源消耗、經濟成長與二氧化碳排放關連性探討-以金磚四國為例。成功大學經營管理碩士學位學程(AMBA)學位論文。2009。1-59。
  3. 林冠瑛(2016)。臺灣各區域環境顧志耐曲線假說之驗證。臺北大學經濟學系學位論文。2016。1-65。
  4. 許家鳳(2017)。政策工具對於節能減排與經濟的影響。淡江大學會計學系碩士班學位論文。2017。1-82。
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