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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 28 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. [4]I. Akasaki, H. Amano, Y. Koide, K. Hiramatsu, and N. Sawaki, “Effects of AlN buffer layer on crystallographic structure and on electrical and optical-properties of GaN and Ga1-xAlxN films grown on sapphire substrate by MOVPE,” Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 98, pp. 209, 1989.
  2. [5]S Nakamura, “GaN growth using GaN buffer layer,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Part 2-Letters, Vol. 30, pp. L1705, 1991.
  3. [6]S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-power InGaN single-quantum-well-structure blue and violet light-emitting-diodes,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 67, pp. 1868, 1995.
  4. [8]E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes, 2nd ed., Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, 2006.
  5. [10]N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, E. I. Chen, M. R. Krames, J. W. Huang, F. A. Kish, S. A. Stockman, C. P. Kocot, T. S. Tan, and N. Moll, “1.4x efficiency improvement in transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P light-emitting diodes with thin (≦2000 Å) active regions,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 74, pp. 2230, 1999.
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳南傑(2012)。共濺鍍透明電極與N型氮化鎵歐姆接觸及其應用於P型氧化鋅/N型氮化鎵異質接面二極體之研究。虎尾科技大學光電與材料科技研究所學位論文。2012。1-88。
  2. 陳坤煌(2014)。台灣LED製程和產業發展分析。中原大學電機工程研究所學位論文。2014。1-54。
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