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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 156 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 4.葛拉威爾(Malcolm Glagwell) 著,引爆趨勢:舉手之勞成大事(The tipping point : How little things can make a big difference. US: Little Brown.) 齊思賢譯,時報出版,2005。
  2. 6.休斯(Mark Hughes) (2005)著,3張嘴傳遍全世界─口碑行銷威力大(Buzzmarketing: Get People to Talk about Your Stuff),李芳齡譯,天下雜誌,台北,2006。
  3. 20.內田廣由紀,共感力-暢銷商品的祕密,城邦文化事業股份有限公司/尖端出版,台北,2009。
  4. 27.林芳珍,「網路外部性下關鍵存續量之估計—時間序列法在WWW伺服器市場之實證」,中原大學,碩士論文,民國92年。
  5. 30.徐亞瑛,「茁根理論之介紹—以台灣地區殘病老人家庭照顧品質研究為例」,護理研究,4(3),263-278,1996。
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