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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 60 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 〔13〕高永昆,「台灣企業競爭行為之研究—建築業與百貨業實證研究」,國立政治大學企業管理學系研究所博士論文」,1989。
  2. 〔16〕張瀞文,「台灣金融控股公司發展趨勢之研究」,朝陽科技大學財務金融系研究所碩士論文,2010。
  3. 〔23〕劉啟群、楊慧敏,「台灣銀行產業結構及經營效率與會計獲利能力指標之關聯性研究,亞太管理評論,第四卷第二期,頁109-129,1999。
  4. 〔24〕黃景沂、莊晋祥,「台灣銀行產業在兩次金融改革期間的競爭與存、貸戶福利的變化」, 台灣經濟學會年會,2012。
  5. 〔29〕財團法人金融研訓院,台灣銀行家雜誌,台北市,財團法人金融研訓院出版,2010年12月、2011年3月。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳益龍(2013)。以系統思考觀點研究銀行國際競爭力-以M銀行為例。中正大學企業管理學系學位論文。2013。1-99。
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