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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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    Reference ( 175 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 4.Su-Hsien Huang, & Bing-Shian Lin (2009). 部落格好友關係之社會網路分析–以無名小站創作圖像分類為例。第十二屆電子商務學術研討會,台北:台北大學
    2. 9.艾昌瑞、楊泰和(2006),有關係、沒關係?”-探究華人商業交易場域中的應酬與關係建構經驗,關係管理研究,第3期,P25-48
    3. 10.江旻峻(2007),Web 2.0 時代網路發展策略--從整合性關係建立網站之觀點出發,台灣大學商學研究所碩士論文,未出版,台北市
    4. 12.李月華、王清梅(2009),網路人際關係及品牌社群對品牌認同之研究,中國社社會科學院-經濟管理,Z1期,P180-183
    5. 13.李信漢、杜綺文(2007),Web 2.0,麥克魯漢知多少?新聞學研究,92,P183-192
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