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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 80 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 陳永琦 (2007) ,「探究本國銀行加入金融控股公司對經營風險與生產成本之影響」,《經濟研究》,43(2),209-242。
    2. 黃台心、姜麗智、許玟婷、陳冠臻 (2008) ,「東西歐商業銀行技術效率與效率調整速度之比較」,《經濟論文》,36 (4),475-507。
    3. 黃台心、張寶光、邱郁芳 (2009) ,「應用共同成本函數探討東亞六國銀行業之生產效率」,《經濟論文》,37 (1),61-100。
    4. Afriat, S. N. (1972), “Efficiency Estimation of Production Functions,” International Economic Review, 13, 568-598.
    5. Aigner, D., C. A. K. Lovell, and P. Schmidt (1977), “Formulation and Estimation of Stochastic Frontier Production Function Models,” Journal of Econometrics, 6(1), 21-37.
    Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
    1. 凌瑞隆(2013)。公平交易委員會商品價值減損規範對多層次傳銷事業經營績效影響。中正大學經濟系國際經濟研究所學位論文。2013。1-47。
    Altmetrics 〈TOP〉
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