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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 65 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳銘祥(2007)。當孩子遇上霸凌。師友月刊,479,45-49。
  2. 林項爵(2010)。父母教養型態、教師管教方式與國小高年級學生霸凌行為之相關探討。未出版碩士論文,國立台北教育大學,台北市。
  3. 林麗玉(2008)。生命教育之「虛」與「需」-由目睹校園霸凌現象談起。諮商與輔導,275,19-23。
  4. 郗雯韻(2010)。青少年媒體使用行為、色情暴力訊息暴露與霸凌經驗之探討-以新北市高中職一年級學生為例。國立台灣師範大學,未出版碩士論文,台北市。
  5. 張榮顯(2010)。玩耍?霸凌?國小高年級男童性霸凌者經驗之探究。未出版碩士論文,樹德科技大學,高雄市。
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