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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 118 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. (5)林建智、李志峰,論責任保險人之抗辯義務-以美國發展為重心-,東吳法律學報,第23卷第2期,109-157頁,2011年10月。
    2. (8)葉啟洲,德國強制汽車責任保險之法律性質及第三人直接請求權之構造,風險管理學報,第11卷第1期,頁5-34,2009年6月。
    3. (1) 林建智、宋耿郎、林柏翰、黎家興、蔡維哲,從保護被保險人之觀點論責任保險人之防禦義務,行政院國家科學委員會補助國立政治大學風險管理與保險學系專題研究計畫成果報告,2011年7月31日。
    4. (22)保険毎日新聞社編,新版賠償責任保険の解說,保険毎日新聞社,2004年7月新版。
    5. 一、中文文獻
    Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
    1. 王田田(2016)。責任保險第三人直接請求權之研究。國立臺灣大學法律學研究所學位論文。2016。1-152。 
    2. 朱耀華(2015)。論責任保險人協助防禦之行為與程序參與。臺北大學法律學系一般生組學位論文。2015。1-202。
    3. 林怡如(2015)。地政人員責任保險之研究 -以土地登記不實為中心。中正大學法律學系學位論文。2015。1-95。
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