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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 103 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 朱芬郁(2007)。高齡者學習社區策略規劃之研究。國立台灣師範大學社會教育研究所博士論文,未出版,台北市。
  2. 吳明烈、陳雯萍(2009)。我國高齡教育的實施與展望。載於成人及終身教育學會(主編),高齡學習與高等教育(頁113-137)。台北市:師大書苑。
  3. 吳明烈、陳雯萍、楊國德(2009)。我國高齡教育的實施與發展。台灣教育,649,2-10。
  4. 吳淑娟(2003)。社教機構人員工作場所之組織氣氛與非正式學習方法關係之研究。國立中正大學成人及續教育研究所博士論文,未出版,嘉義縣。
  5. 林麗惠(2007)。從高齡教育機構開設的課程類別評析高齡學習內容之發展趨勢。課程與教學季刊,10(1),83-96。
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