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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 107 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王明月 (2010)。桌球教練領導行為與組織氣氛、團隊凝聚力、運動滿意度之結構模式。大專體育學刊,12(3),53-64。
  2. 王俊明 (2013)。運動教練的性別角色、情緒智慧、教練領導行為與教練效能關係之研究。運動與健康研究,3(1),1-28。
  3. 白慧嬰、杜美華(2008)。桌球隊的經營與管理。大專體育學刊,97,72-75。
  4. 吳海助(1997)。學校專任教練行為分析–以國小手球教練為例。國立體育學院論叢,7,177-200 。
  5. 李良禹、孫衙聰 (2013)。教練領導行為與領導信任對團隊凝聚力之相關研究-以北區運動代表隊為例。萬能學報,35,119-128。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 呂明哲(2015)。優秀桌球運動員責任感與利社會行為之培育模式。中正大學運動與休閒教育研究所學位論文。2015。1-221。
  2. 吳啟明(2016)。一位優秀足球教練之領導行為。中正大學運動與休閒教育研究所學位論文。2016。1-119。
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