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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 252 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1. 于卓民,廖采如(2005)。影響子公司控制機制選擇之研究-以台灣企業為例。交大管理學報,25 (2),27-56。
  2. 6. 王宗義(2012)。中國多國籍企業對外直接投資決定因素之探討。暨南國際大學管理學院經營管理碩士在職專班未出版碩士論文。
  3. 11. 林羽茨(2012)。國際化、多角化程度與公司治理對企業績效之影響-以台灣集團企業為例。國立清雲科技大學財務金融研究所未出版碩士論文。
  4. 12. 林佩蓁(2012)。探討台灣集團企業之創新績效的影響因素。國立中興大學會計所未出版碩士論文。
  5. 13. 林怡澐(2013)。多國籍企業國際化程度與其對子公司之控制程度-國際化進程學派與資源基礎學派觀點的比較。暨南大學國際企業學系為出版學位論文。
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