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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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  1. 江振東、李景美、賴香如、李碧霞、張鳳琴(2002)。台北縣市高職學生物質濫用之危險因子與保護因子研究。行政院衛生署八十八至九十一年度科技研究發展計畫(DOH89-TD-1115)。台北市:台灣師範大學衛生教育系。
  2. 李景美、黃惠玲、苗迺芳(2000)。青少年物質使用之社會學習及社會連結因素
  3. 李思賢、林國甯、楊浩然、傅麗安、劉筱雯、李商琪(2009)。青少年毒品戒治者對藥物濫用之認知、態度、行為與因應方式。青少年犯罪防治研究期刊,1(1),01-19。
  4. 李思賢、吳憲璋、黃昭正、王志傑、石倩瑜(2010)。毒品罪再犯率與保護因子研究:以基隆地區為例。犯罪學期刊,13(1),81-106。
  5. 林淑鈴(2012)。中途肢體障礙者重返職場歷程研究。國立暨南國際大學社會政策與社會工作研究所碩士論文,南投縣。
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