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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 108 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1.翁啟文(民98)。電子商務應用在營建業之研究。未出版之碩士論文。國立交通大學,新竹市。
  2. 8.劉惠慈、洪啟東(2008)。電子市集的關鍵成功因素研究-以古坑咖啡休閒產業為例。運動休閒產業管理學術研究會論文集。
  3. 11.唐瓔璋、吳敏華、林佳慧、宋建宏(2009)。組織採購決策因素之研究-以大中國地區電子連接器產業為例。行銷評論,6(4),499-526。
  4. 15.郭怡欣(民102)。電子商務經驗對行動商務使用意圖之影響-以服飾業為例。未出版之碩士論文。國立成功大學,台南市。
  5. Afuah, A., & Tucci, C. L. (2003). A model of the Internet as creative destroyer. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 50(4), 395-402.
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