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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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    Reference ( 128 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 莊正中,2012,〈美國世代公平的爭論與改革:以OASDI方案為例〉,《東吳社會工作學報》,第24期,頁117-150。
    2. 曾中明,2006,〈台灣老人福利概況及政策展望〉,《台灣老年醫學雜誌》,1(3):112-120。
    3. 黃宗昊,2010,〈歷史制度論的方法立場與理論建構〉,《問題與研究》,第49卷第3期,頁145-175。
    4. 葉崇琦,2013,〈勞保年金改革對個人及企業的影響及因應〉,《會計研究月刊》,第331期,頁49-57。
    5. 劉育偉、盧俊良,2011,〈論老年生活保障之落實-以國民年金保險與勞工保險老年給付之整合為中心〉,《勞工安全衛生研究季刊》,19(2):308-318。
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