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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 205 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王如哲(2008),《評鑑大學績效的一項新指標-就業力》,評鑑雙月刊電子報,15。
  2. 余采芳(2011),組織動態能力、組織創新氣候、預應人格特質與知識分享對創新行為影響之跨層次分析,國立臺灣師範大學科技應用與人力資源發展學系碩士論文。
  3. 巫立宇(2006),《資源、社會資本、路徑相依與動態能力之研究》,管理評論,28(1),121-140。
  4. 林怡君(1998),《社會企業在臺灣的發展與限制~以多元就業開發方案經濟型計畫為例》,《就業安全》,1:60-67,台北:行政院勞工委員會職業訓練局。
  5. 林鉦棽(2005)。組織公民行為之跨層次分析:層級線性模式的應用。管理學報,22(4),503-524。
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