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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 398 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王冠今(2010)。台灣社區老人的社會支持改變、健康狀況改變與社會參與之縱貫性研究。國立臺灣師範大學健康促進與衛生教育學系博士論文。
  2. 王悅琳(2013)。台中市國小教師老化態度、活躍老化學習認知與學習需求之研究。國立中正大學教學專業發展數位學習碩士在職專班碩士論文。
  3. 朱妙芳(2009)。台北縣三鶯區高齡者人際關係與幸福感關聯之研究。國立台灣師範大學社會教育學系在職進修專班碩士論文。
  4. 江彥陵(2007)。大學生親密關係中依附類型、衝突因應與關係適應之相關研究。國立政治大學教育研究所碩士論文。
  5. 呂寶靜(2000)。老人朋友網絡支持功能之初探。社會政策與社會工作學刊,4(2),43-90。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳銘村(2016)。原住民成人學習者社會支持、自我效能與學習動機關係之研究。中正大學成人及繼續教育學系學位論文。2016。1-196。
  2. 梁明皓(2016)。高齡教育教師角色知覺、老化態度與教學策略關係之研究:成人教育學觀點。中正大學成人及繼續教育學系學位論文。2016。1-242。
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