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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 125 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Immanuel Wallerstein著,郭方、劉新城、張文剛譯,近代世界體系(台北:桂冠,1998年)。
  2. 王玉民,社會科學研究方法原理(台北:洪葉文化,1998年)。
  3. 劉孔中,智慧財產權運用與競爭秩序(台北:經濟部智慧財產局,2007年二版)。
  4. 黃文鴻、謝季峰,「WTO智慧財產權規範與藥品可近性─尋求產業發展與公共衛生之間的平衡點」,收錄於施正鋒主編,人類安全(台北:財團法人國家展望文教基金會、台灣心會,2004年)頁243-268。
  5. 牛惠之,「世界貿易組織之SPS協定關於風險評估與風險管理之規範體系與爭端案例研究」,臺灣國際法季刊,第1卷第二期(2004年6月),頁151-236。
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