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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 319 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王寶維(2010)。以藝術為媒材的團體諮商對獨居老人自我統整之研究(未出版之碩士論文)。國立暨南國際大學輔導與諮商研究所,南投縣。.
  2. 江弘基、戴傳文、李明濱、王銘光、張文穎、蔡佩樺(2006)。老人自殺問題。台灣醫學,10(3),353-361。
  3. 吳貞緣(2004)。宗教信仰與參與度對老年人心理健康與生活滿意度之影響(未出版之碩士論文)。國立臺北醫學大學醫務管理研究所,臺北市。
  4. 吳柄緯(2011)。老人人際親密、社會參與及心理健康狀況之相關研究(未出版之碩士論文)。國立臺北教育大學心理與諮商研究所,臺北市
  5. 李百麟(2009)。高齡者之生活滿意度與成功老化各因素關係之探討。危機管理學刊,6(2),25-37。
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