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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 66 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 7.林金定、嚴嘉楓、陳美花(2005)。質性研究方法:訪談模式與實施步驟分析。身心障礙研究期刊,3(2),122-136。
  2. 10.陳世雄(2013)。健保藥價政策與藥價黑洞之探討─藥品費用分配比率目標制分析性研究─(未出版之碩士論文)。國立台北大學企業管理研究所,台北。
  3. 11.陳靖玟(2013)。制度同形、當地鑲嵌與資源依賴對台商大陸子公司組織學習機制配適影響之研究(未出版之碩士論文)。國立中正大學企業管理研究所,嘉義。
  4. 12.黃銘章、溫福星、陳虹如、卜唯平(2005)。多國籍企業回應當地需求因素之研究—以行銷組合當地化為例。企業管理學報,66,41-76。
  5. 16.諸承明、余坤東、胡秀華(2007)。中國大陸台資企業國際化人力資源管理策略之研究-標準化策略/本土化策略之實證分析。中山管理評論,15(2), 433-463。
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