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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 81 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王美琪(2013)。國民中學教師領導與終身學習能力關係之研究—以台東縣為例(碩士論文)。取自
  2. 王叢桂、羅國英(2013)。嬰兒潮世代退休時期的心理需求與價值:關係主義取向。本土心理學研究,39,3-63。
  3. 吳明烈(2004)。終身學習─理念與實踐。台北:五南
  4. 吳美美、王宏仁(2007)。數位時代中小學教師個人知識管理概念構架研究。圖書資訊學研究, 2(1), 97-122。
  5. 李宗派(2009)。探討嬰兒潮之退休概念與其變遷趨勢。臺灣老人保健學刊,5(2),70-92。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 洪聖斌(2017)。應用層級分析法探討國軍人員在職進修因素之研究-以某憲兵分隊為例。義守大學資訊管理學系學位論文。2017。1-70。
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