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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 164 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王更生(1996)。國文教學面面觀。國立臺灣師範大學中等教育輔導委員會。台北市。
  2. 李新民(2010)。正向心理學在學校教育的應用。麗文文化事業股份有限公司。高雄市。
  3. 李琪明、方志華、陳延興、劉秀嫚(2014)。品德教育融入十二年國民基本教育課程之研究。國家教育研究院。計劃編號:NAER-2013-10-A-2-02-00-2-2
  4. 吳美真譯(1998)。美德書。原著為William J. Bennett(1993). The Book of Virtues : a treasury of great moral stories.圓神出版社有限公司。台北市。
  5. 余民寧、謝進昌、林士郁、陳柏霖、曾筱婕(2011)。教師主觀幸福感模式建構與驗證之研究,測驗學刊,58(1),55-85。
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