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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing a document with a DOI, the DOI permanent URL should always be presented (if using APA or Chicago format, present number). If using a citation format that does not specify DOI, the DOI permanent URL should still be presented as a priority.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 117 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 水心蓓(2006)。公園休閒遊憩者對軟硬體設施使用滿意度研究-以大安森林公園為例。未出版碩士論文。國立臺灣師範大學,臺北市。
  2. 王敏華(2005)。自然公園使用者休閒效益與休閒設施滿意度之研究-以臺北市富陽公園為例。未出版碩士論文。國立臺灣師範大學,臺北市。
  3. 王凱立(2000)。民間機構經營學校運動設施之可行性研究-以臺北市市立國民中學學校游泳池設施為例。未出版碩士論文。國立臺灣大學,臺北市。
  4. 王學中、曾健仲、黃志成(2012)。運用層級分析法評估大專校院體育館使用需求-以明志科技大學為例。運動研究,21(2),29-44。
  5. 吳國銑(2005)。花蓮縣立運動公園經營管理策略研究。未出版博士論文。國立臺灣師範大學,臺北市。
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