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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 74 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 張春興、?清山(1992)。教育心?學。台?:東華。
  2. 林清山(1977)。數學課程的設計和教學理論基礎。台北市:國立台灣師範大學科學教育中心。
  3. 林清山、張景媛(1994):國中生代數應用題教學策略效果之評估。國立台灣師範大學教育心理與輔導學系教育心理學報,27,35-62。
  4. 林碧珍(1991)。國小兒童對乘除法應用問題之認知結構。國立新竹師範學院學報,5,221-228。
  5. 陳筱涵(2004):高雄地區國一學生因數與倍數單元錯誤類型之分析研究。國立高雄師範大學數學教育研究所論文,未出版,高雄市。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 昌秀英(2011)。國小低年級學童等號概念與教師對其發展情形了解之研究。中原大學教育研究所學位論文。2011。1-167。 
  2. 葉長庚(2017)。卑南遺址史前聚落形成與發展之研究。臺灣大學人類學研究所學位論文。2017。1-324。 
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