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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 103 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 丁惠琪(2000)。合作學習應用在國小數學教學之探究(未出版之碩士論文)。國立台北師範學院課程與教學研究所,台北市。
  2. 方華璟(2009)。合作學習對國民中學學生英語學習之影響-以臺北縣立大大國中為例(未出版之碩士論文)。國立臺灣師範大學教育學系在職進修碩士班,台北市。
  3. 林立軒(2013)。運用STAD合作學習法於國中英語補救教學之行動研究(未出版之碩士論文)。國立臺北科技大學技術及職業教育研究所,台北市。
  4. 邱裕惠(2002)。合作學習在國中英語教室之應用研究(未出版之碩士論文)。國立臺灣師範大學英語研究所,台北市。
  5. 洪琮琪(2002)。網路出題與合作學習對學習成效之影響(未出版之碩士論文)。國立成功大學教育研究所,台南市。
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