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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 73 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 毛國楠、劉政宏、彭淑玲、李維光、陳慧娟(2008)。能力信念、學業自我價值後效與學業成就對國小學生學習動機與學習情緒之影響。教育心理學報,39(4),569-588。
  2. 吳欣宜(2004)。國小卵胎生概念數位教材之設計與建構。國立台北師範學院教育傳播與科技研究所碩士論文,未出版,台北市。
  3. 吳淑玲(2007)。國小學童 數學課室目標結構與其心理需求、動機類型及學習行為之相關研究。東海大學教育研究所碩士論文,未出版,臺中市。
  4. 林永菁(2009)。自然與生活科技領域課程實施現況之分析。科技教育課程改革與發展學術研討會論文集,2008,110-118。
  5. 施淑慎(2008)。父母態度、教師之自主支持及心理控制與國中生完美主義傾向間關係之探究。彰化師大教育學報,17,1-16。
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