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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 258 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 內政部統計處(2002)。中華民國九十年臺閩地區國民生活狀況調查報告。臺北市:內政部統計處。
  2. 王文芳(2003)。家屬安置老人於長期照護機構之經驗(未出版之碩士論文)。中國醫藥學院,臺中市。
  3. 王文芳、陳玉敏(2004)。家屬安置老人於長期照護機構之經驗。長期照顧雜誌,8(3),327-344。
  4. 伊慶春、章英華(2008)。父系家庭的持續與變遷-臺灣的家庭社會學研究。載於謝國雄(主編),群學爭鳴:臺灣社會學發展史,1945-2005(23-73)。臺北市:群學。
  5. 朱秀琴、周植強(2008)。運用悲傷輔導於老年喪偶憂鬱患者之護理經驗。護理雜誌,55(5),90-96。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 莊敬(2016)。他們為何照顧長輩?─臺灣中壯年世代子女照顧父母的照顧社會秩序探討。臺灣大學社會工作學研究所學位論文。2016。1-197。 
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