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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 97 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王相華、沈勇強、高瑞卿 (2002) 北臺灣福山試驗林陡峭林地之植群構造在不同微地貌的變化。臺灣林業科學 17(1): 99-112。
  2. 李文媛 (2011) 東北季風對南仁山迎風坡與背風坡生育地樹種苗木形態及生長之影響。國立屏東科技大學熱農所碩士論文,65頁。
  3. 阮筱雯 (2005) 航遙測技術於棲蘭山檜木老林分之研究。國立臺灣大學森林暨環境資源學系碩士論文,100頁。
  4. 林振榮、林世宗、鍾智昕 (2010) 棲蘭山天然更新臺灣扁柏林分樹輪及材質之研究。中華林學季刊 43(1): 131-145。
  5. 林莉萍 (2013) 應用空載光達資料估計森林樹冠高度模型及葉面積指數。國立成功大學測量與空間資訊學系碩士論文,69頁。
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