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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 120 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 參考文獻一、中文部份 王文科(2001)。教育研究法。台北市:五南。 王潔(2005)。青少年運動員心理技能的量化分析。第一屆學校體育科學大會論文選集-學校體育改革與發展,中國學校體育網,WWW.SCHOOLSPORTS.COM.CN。 古國華(1994)。國中校隊運動員運動心理技能力表現初探,體育學報,18, 369~380。
    2. 朱昌勇(2005)。我國優秀桌球運動員心理技能與成績表現之關連性研究,未出版碩士論文,台北巿立體育學院,台北巿。 朱素鑾(1996)。大專田徑運動員心理競技能力之探討。國立體育學院論叢,6(1), 159-168。
    3. 江柏衡(2005)。我國優秀桌球選手成功歷程探討,未出版碩士論文,中國文化大學,台北市。 李玉麟、杜美華(2006)。桌球心裡訓練-別灰心喪氣、選手能夠學習勝利!。大專體育,82,6-10。
    4. 李建璋(2008)。96年全國運動會運動員心理技能之研究。97年度大專體育學術專刊,410-418。
    5. 呂碧琴(1991)。自信心與運動表現。中華體育季刊,4(4),21-25。
    Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
    1. 蕭政毅(2015)。我國排球裁判參與動機、自信心與執法表現滿意度之相關研究。長榮大學運動競技學系(所)學位論文。2015。1-117。 
    2. 巫文德(2012)。全國工業類科學生技藝競賽汽車修護職種選手訓練策略之研究。臺灣師範大學工業教育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2012。1-143。
    3. 董庭瑜(2017)。教練運動領導行為對運動員心理資本、心理因應技能、目標取向關聯之研究。淡江大學管理科學學系企業經營碩士在職專班學位論文。2017。1-61。
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