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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 93 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 參考文獻中文部份王天苗(1983)。國中小資源教室實施狀況之調查研究。特殊教育季刊,10,14-24。
    2. 吳佳臻(2005)。國民中學特殊教育教師在職進修需求之研究。國立彰化師範大學 特殊教育研究所碩士論文,未出版,彰化市。
    3. 林文律(2000)。學校行政:理想與實際。學校行政,6,24-37。
    4. 林志成(2001)。反教育的學校行政之哲學省思。學校行政,14,19-28。
    5. 陳宇杉(2004)。國民小學身心障礙資源班教師教學信念、社會支持與教學行為關 係之研究。彰化師範大學特殊教育研究所碩士論文,未出版,彰化市。陳伯璋、施冠慨、劉錫麒、游家政、林坤燦和蘇進財(1996)。國民小學在職進修 內涵與進修體系規劃研究。國立花蓮師範學院國民教育研究碩士論文,未出版,花蓮縣。陳忠信(2002)。高職特教班教師教學支援需求之研究。彰化師範大學工業教育學系 研究碩士論文,未出版,彰化市。
    Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
    1. 潘杏宜(2016)。初任特殊教育教師導入輔導需求之研究。中原大學特殊教育研究所學位論文。2016。1-187。
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