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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 72 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 吳慧卿(2002)。選手知覺教練領導行為、團隊衝突、團隊凝聚力及滿意度關係之實證研究。未出版碩士論文,國立臺灣師範大學,臺北市。宋一夫、湯慧娟(2005)。我國大專院校游泳教練家長式領導之調查研究。大專體育學刊,7(3),151-160。
    2. 吳明隆(2009)。SPSS操作與應用-問卷統計分析實務(初版二刷)。臺北市:五南。季力康、賴素玲、陳美燕(1995)。大專網球選手運動項目取向與運動動機之相關研究。體育學報,20,1-12。
    3. 林曉怡(2005)。臺南市國小游泳團隊學童運動參與動機與社會支持之研究。未出版碩士論文,臺北巿立體育學院,臺北市。 林夙豐、蘇秦玉(2008)。教練領導風格對高中排球選手團隊承諾及滿意度影響之研究。運動與遊憩研究,2(3),37-49。
    4. 高三福(2001)。團隊文化與教練領導:質化與量化兩種研究途徑。未出版碩士論文,國立臺灣師範大學,臺北市。
    5. 高三福(2005)。華人運動團隊信任:教練與運動員互動之探究。大專體與學刊,7(3),115-126。高三福、陳鈺芳(2006a)。運動教練的教誨領導:高中運動團隊的個案研究。大專體育學刊,8(1),97-111。高三福、陳鈺芳(2006b)。要求與實際領導行為一致性、領導信任與效能關係之研究。大專體育學刊,8(4),63-77。
    Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
    1. 曾科魁(2017)。團體動力與團體凝聚力對國民中學童軍教育學習滿意度影響之研究。義守大學資訊管理學系學位論文。2017。1-93。
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